Hand lay-up is the most common and least expensive open-molding method. Fiber reinforcements are placed by hand in a mold and resin is applied with a brush or roller.
Filament winding is an automated process that applies resin-saturated, continuous strands of fiber reinforcements over a rotating cylindrical mold.
Vacuum infusion process is a technique that uses vacuum pressure to drive resin into a laminate. Vacuum infusion is typically used to manufacture very large structures. Vacuum infusion produces strong, lightweight laminates and offers substantial emissions reductions
Pultrusion is used to form composites into long, consistent shapes like rods or bars. Continuous strands of reinforcement are pulled through a resin bath to saturate them, then pulled through heated steel molds that sculpt the composites into continuous lengths.
Vacuum bagging is a technique employed to create mechanical pressure to remove air volatiles and chemically to setup cross-linking to form rigid laminate during its cure cycle.
Resin transfer molding (RTM) is a closed-molding method in which reinforcement material is loaded into a closed mold, the mold is clamped, and resin is pumped in (through injection ports) under pressure.